Wednesday, March 21, 2012

New Book > Why Are We Producing Biofuels?

Why are We Producing Biofuels?:  Shifting to the Ultimate Source of Energy  / Robert C. Brown, Tristan R. Brown  / Brownia LLC / 2012 /  $17.95 / 

Why Are We Producing Biofuels?" is written for those who are curious about efforts to introduce biofuels into our energy supply but are not satisfied with the publically accessible information on the subject. Written by experts in the field, this book provides educators, policy makers, and business leaders, and the general public with an insider's understanding of the current research in the field as well as an appreciation of the debates surrounding biofuels.

This book explores the opportunity to advance a sustainable energy future through the development of advanced biofuels. By examining the emergence of first generation biofuels and the kinds of technologies being developed for advanced biofuels, the book also articulates the challenges that must be overcome:
  • Will the industry be driven by technological innovation or government policy?
  • If not gasoline and diesel, what fuel will propel our vehicles?
  • How is it that we are using food crops to produce motor fuels?
  • What do the recent criticisms about biofuels portend for its future?
  • How is it possible that a renewable fuel can contribute to global climate change?
  • What kinds of biomass occur in sufficient quantity to help displace imported petroleum?
  • How can these feedstocks be transformed into transportation fuels?
  • What is the most likely future of fuels?
Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Answer in brief
Chapter 2 What are the origins of the biofuels era?
Chapter 3 Why do we need to end our addiction to oil?
Chapter 4 What are our alternatives to imported petroleum?
Chapter 5 What are our alternatives to gasoline?
Chapter 6 Why are we producing grain ethanol and biodiesel?
Chapter 7 Why are we developing advanced biofuels?
Chapter 8 How can we turn lipids into advanced biofuels?
Chapter 9 How can we turn cellulose into advanced biofuels?
Chapter 10 How can we use heat to produce biofuels?
Chapter 11 What is the future of fuels?

Publication Date: Mar 21 2012
ISBN/EAN13: 0984090630 / 9780984090631
Page Count: 360
Binding Type: US Trade Paper
Trim Size: 6" x 9"
Language: English
Color: Black and White
Related Categories: Technology & Engineering / General

About the authors

Robert C. Brown is Anson Marston Distinguished Professor of Engineering and Gary and Donna Hoover Chair in Mechanical Engineering at Iowa State University (ISU). He is the founding director of ISU's Bioeconomy Institute and helped establish ISU's Biorenewable Resources and Technology interdisciplinary graduate program. He is well known for his research on the production and use of biofuels.

Tristan R. Brown is an attorney employed as a research associate at Iowa State University's Bioeconomy Institute. He has published on topics ranging from greenhouse gas emissions policy to global trade law to engineering economics. He also teaches a graduate-level course on biorenewables law and policy.

Source and Links To Purchase Available At


Related Article

"Ethanol debate asks: Is corn food or fuel?"


Tuesday, June 26, 2007

Major DOE Grants to Three Bioenergy Research Centers

Energy Department Selects Three Bioenergy Research Centers for $375 Million in Federal Funding

Basic Genomics Research Furthers President Bush’s Plan to Reduce Gasoline Usage 20 Percent in Ten Year

WASHINGTON, DC – U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced that DOE will invest up to $375 million in three new Bioenergy Research Centers that will be located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Madison, Wisconsin; and near Berkeley, California.
The Centers are intended to accelerate basic research in the development of cellulosic ethanol and other biofuels, advancing President Bush’s Twenty in Ten Initiative, which seeks to reduce U.S. gasoline consumption by 20 percent within ten years through increased efficiency and diversification of clean energy sources. The Department plans to fund the Centers for the first five years of operation (Fiscal Years 2008-2013).

“These Centers will provide the transformational science needed for bioenergy breakthroughs to advance President Bush’s goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive with gasoline by 2012, and assist in reducing America’s gasoline consumption by 20 percent in ten years,” Secretary Bodman said. “The collaborations of academic, corporate, and national laboratory researchers represented by these centers are truly impressive and I am very encouraged by the potential they hold for advancing America’s energy security.”

To bring the latest tools of the biotechnology revolution to bear to advance clean energy production, the Centers will be supported by multidisciplinary teams of top scientists. A major focus will be on understanding how to reengineer biological processes to develop new, more efficient methods for converting the cellulose in plant material into ethanol or other biofuels that serve as a substitute for gasoline. This research is critical because future biofuels production will require the use of feedstocks more diverse than corn, including cellulosic material like agricultural residues, grasses, poplar trees, inedible plants, and non-edible portions of crops.

The Centers will bring together diverse teams of researchers from 18 of the nation’s leading universities, seven DOE national laboratories, at least one nonprofit organization, and a range of private companies. All three Centers are located in geographically distinct areas and will use different plants both for laboratory research and for improving feedstock crops.

The mission of the Bioenergy Research Centers will lie at the frontier between basic and applied science, and will maintain a focus on bioenergy applications. These Centers aim to identify real steps toward practical solutions regarding to the challenge of producing renewable, carbon-neutral energy. At the same time, the Centers will be grounded in basic research, pursuing alternative avenues and a range of high-risk, high-return approaches to finding solutions. To some degree, one key to the Centers’ success will be their ability to develop the more basic dimensions of their research to a point that can easily transition to applied research.

The Department’s three Bioenergy Research Centers will include:

The DOE BioEnergy Science Center led by the DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Center Director will be Martin Keller, and collaborators include: Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia; DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado; University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia; Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire; and the University of Tennessee, in Knoxville, Tennessee.

The DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center
will be led by the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, in close collaboration with Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. The Center Director will be Timothy Donohue, and other collaborators include: DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington; Lucigen Corporation in Middleton, Wisconsin; University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida; DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Illinois State University in Normal, Illinois; and Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa.

The DOE Joint BioEnergy Institute will be led by DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Institute Director will be Jay Keasling, and collaborators include: Sandia National Laboratories; DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; University of California - Berkeley; University of California - Davis; and Stanford University in Stanford, California.

Subject to the finalization of contract terms and congressional appropriations, the Centers are expected to begin work in 2008, consistent with President Bush’s Fiscal Year 2008 Budget Request, and would be fully operational by 2009. DOE’s Office of Science issued a competitive Funding Opportunity Announcement in August 2006 to solicit applications. The three Centers were chosen following a merit-based, competitive review process that included external scientific peer review of the applications.

The establishment of the bioenergy research centers culminates a six-year effort by DOE’s Office of Science to lay the foundation for breakthroughs in systems biology for the cost-effective production of renewable energy. In July 2006, DOE’s Office of Science issued a joint biofuels research agenda with the Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy titled “Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol.” The report provides a detailed roadmap for cellulosic ethanol research, identifying key roadblocks and areas where scientific breakthroughs are needed.

Today’s announcement follows other key funding announcements this year to advance President Bush’s Twenty in Ten Initiative, and to make cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with gasoline by 2012. On February 28, 2007, DOE announced up to $385 million for six biorefinery projects that when fully operational are expected to produce more than 130 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. On May 1, 2007, DOE announced a funding opportunity for $200 million over five years (FY’07-FY’11) to support the development of small scale bio-refineries that produce liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol. [snip]


U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Public Affairs, Washington, D.C.


Saturday, June 16, 2007

Biorefineries: Industrial Processes and Products | 2 v.

Biorefineries - Industrial Processes and Products
Edited by Birgit Kamm, Patrick R. Gruber, and Michael Kamm.

Weinheim ; [Great Britain]: Wiley-VCH, 2006. 2 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN 3527310274; ISBN 9783527310272

Table of Contents
Editors’s Preface.
Foreword (Henning Hopf).
Foreword (Paul T. Anastas).
List of Contributors.

Volume 1.

Part I Background and Outline – Principles and Fundamentals.

1 Biorefinery Systems – An Overview (Birgit Kamm, Michael Kamm, Patrick R. Gruber, and Stefan Kromus).
1.1 Introduction.
1.2 Historical Outline
1.3 Situation.
1.4 Principles of Biorefineries.
1.5 Biorefinery Systems and Design.
1.6 Outlook and Perspectives.

2 Biomass Refining Global Impact – The Biobased Economy of the 21st Century (Bruce E. Dale and Seungdo Kim.
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Historical Outline.
2.3 Supplying the Biorefinery.
2.4 How Will Biorefineries Develop Technologically?
2.5 Sustainability of Integrated Biorefining Systems.
2.6 Conclusions.

3 Development of Biorefineries – Technical and Economic Considerations (Bill Dean, Tim Dodge, Fernando Valle, and Gopal Chotani).
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Overview: The Biorefinery Model.
3.3 Feedstock and Conversion to Fermentable Sugar.
3.4 Technical Challenges.
3.5 Conclusions.

4 Biorefineries for the Chemical Industry – A Dutch Point of View (Ed de Jong, René van Ree Rea, Robert van Tuil, and Wolter Elbersen).
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Historical Outline – The Chemical Industry: Current Situation and
4.3 Biomass: Technology and Sustainability.
4.4 The Chemical Industry: Biomass Opportunities – Biorefineries.
4.5 Conclusions, Outlook, and Perspectives.

Part II Biorefinery Systems.

Lignocellulose Feedstock Biorefinery.

5 The Lignocellulosic Biorefinery – A Strategy for Returning to a Sustainable Source of Fuels and Industrial Organic Chemicals (L. Davis Clements and Donald L. Van Dyne).
5.1 The Situation.
5.2 The Strategy.
5.3 Comparison of Petroleum and Biomass Chemistry.
5.4 The Chemistry of the Lignocellulosic Biorefinery.
5.5 Examples of Integrated Biorefinery Applications.
5.6 Summary.

6 Lignocellulosic Feedstock Biorefinery: History and Plant Development for Biomass Hydrolysis (Raphael Katzen and Daniel J. Schell).
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Hydrolysis of Biomass Materials.
6.3 Acid Hydrolysis Processes.
6.4 Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process.
6.5 Conclusion.

7 The Biofine Process – Production of Levulinic Acid, Furfural, and Formic Acid from Lignocellulosic Feedstocks (Daniel J. Hayes, Steve Fitzpatrick, Michael H.B. Hayes, and Julian R.H. Ross).
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 Lignocellulosic Fractionation.
7.3 The Biofine Process.
7.4 Conclusion.

Whole Crop Biorefinery.

8 A Whole Crop Biorefinery System: A Closed System for the Manufacture of Non-food Products from Cereals (Apostolis A. Koutinas, Rouhang Wang, Grant M. Campbell, and Colin Webb).
8.1 Intro.
8.2 Biorefineries Based on Wheat.
8.3 A Biorefinery Based on Oats.
8.4 Summary.

Fuel-oriented Biorefineries.

9 Iogen’s Demonstration Process for Producing Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass (Jeffrey S. Tolan).
9.1 Introduction.
9.2 Process Overview.
9.3 Feedstock Selection.
9.4 Pretreatment.
9.5 Cellulase Enzyme Production.
9.6 Cellulose Hydrolysis.
9.7 Lignin Processing.
9.8 Sugar Fermentation and Ethanol Recovery.

10 Sugar-based Biorefinery – Technology for Integrated Production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), Sugar, and Ethanol(Carlos Eduardo Vaz Rossell, Paulo E. Mantelatto, José A.M. Agnelli, and Jefter Nascimento).
10.1 Introduction.
10.2 Sugar Cane Agro Industry in Brazil – Historical Outline.
10.3 Biodegradable Plastics from Sugar Cane.
10.4 Poly(3-Hydroxybutyric Acid) Production Process.
10.5 Outlook and Perspectives.

Biorefineries Based on Thermochemical Processing.

11 Biomass Refineries Based on Hybrid Thermochemical-Biological Processing – An Overview (Robert C. Brown).
11.1 Introduction.
11.2 Historical Outline.
11.3 Gasification-Based Systems.
11.4 Fast Pyrolysis-based Systems.
11.5 Outlook and Perspectives.

Green Biorefineries.

12 The Green Biorefiner Concept – Fundamentals and Potential
(Stefan Kromus, Birgit Kamm, Michael Kamm, Paul Fowler, and Michael Narodoslawsky).
12.1 Introduction.
12.2 Historical Outline.
12.3 Green Biorefinery Raw Materials.
12.4 Green Biorefinery Concept.
12.5 Processes and Products.
12.6 Green Biorefinery – Economic and Ecological Aspects.
12.7 Outlook and Perspectives.

13 Plant Juice in the Biorefinery – Use of Plant Juice as Fermentation Medium (Margrethe Andersen, Pauli Kiel, and Mette Hedegaard Thomsen).
13.1 Introduction.
13.2 Historical Outline.
13.3 Biobased Poly(lactic Acid).
13.4 Materials and Methods.
13.5 Brown Juice.
13.6 Potato Juice.
13.7 Carbohydrate Source.
13.8 Purification of Lactic Acid.
13.9 Conclusion and Outlook.

Part III Biomass Production and Primary Biorefineries.

14 Biomass Commercialization and Agriculture Residue Collection (James Hettenhaus).
14.1 Introduction.
14.2 Historical Outline.
14.3 Biomass Value.
14.4 Sustainable Removal.
14.5 Innovative Methods for Collection, Storage and Transport.
14.6 Establishing Feedstock Supply.
14.7 Perspectives and Outlook.

15 The Corn Wet Milling and Corn Dry Milling Industry – A Base for Biorefinery Technology Developments (Donald L. Johnson).
15.1 Introduction.

15.2 The Corn Refinery.
15.3 The Modern Corn Refinery.
15.4 Carbohydrate Refining.
15.5 Outlook and Perspectives.

Part IV Biomass Conversion: Processes and Technologies.

16 Enzymes for Biorefineries (Sarah A. Teter, Feng Xu, Glenn E. Nedwin, and Joel R. Cherry).
16.1 Introduction.
16.2 Biomass as a Substrate.
16.3 Enzymes Involved in Biomass Biodegradation.
16.4 Cellulase Development for Biomass Conversion.
16.5 Expression of Cellulases.
16.6 Range of Biobased Products.
16.7 Biorefineries: Outlook and Perspectives.

17 Biocatalytic and Catalytic Routes for the Production of Bulk and Fine Chemicals from Renewable Resources (Thomas Willke, Ulf Prüße, and Klaus-Dieter Vorlop).
17.1 Introduction.
17.2 Historical Outline.
17.3 Processes.

Subject Index.

Volume 2.

Part I Biobased Product Family Trees.

Carbohydrate-based Product Lines.
1 The Key Sugars of Biomass: Availability, Present Non-Food Uses and Potential Future Development Lines(Frieder W. Lichtenthaler).
2 Industrial Starch Platform – Status quo of Production, Modification and Application (Dietmar R. Grüll, Franz Jetzinger, Martin Kozich, Marnik M. Wastyn, and Robert Wittenberger).
3 Lignocellulose-based Chemical Products and Product Family Trees (Birgit Kamm, Michael Kamm, Matthias Schmidt, Thomas Hirth, and Margit Schulze).

Lignin Line and Lignin-based Product Family Trees.
4 Lignin Chemistry and its Role in Biomass Conversion (Gösta Brunow).
5 Industrial Lignin Production and Applications (E. Kendall Pye).

Protein Line and Amino Acid-based Product Family Trees.
6 Towards Integration of Biorefinery and Microbial Amino Acid Production (Achim Marx, Volker F. Wendisch, Ralf Kelle, and Stefan Buchholz).
7 Protein-based Polymers: Mechanistic Foundations for Bioproduction and Engineering (Dan W. Urry).

Biobased Fats (Lipids) and Oils.
8 New Syntheses with Oils and Fats as Renewable Raw Materials for the Chemical Industry (Ursula Biermann, Wolfgang Friedt, Siegmund Lang, Wilfried Lühs, Guido Machmüller, Jürgen O. Metzger, Mark Rüsch gen. Klaas, Hans J. Schäfer, Manfred P. Schneider).
9 Industrial Development and Application of Biobased Oleochemicals (Karlheinz Hill).

Special Ingredients and Subsequent Products.

10 Phytochemicals, Dyes, and Pigments in the Biorefinery Context (George A. Kraus).
11 Adding Color to Green Chemistry?
An Overview of the Fundamentals and Potential of Chlorophylls (Mathias O. Senge and Julia Richter).

Part II Biobased Industrial Products, Materials and Consumer Products.

12 Industrial Chemicals from Biomass – Industrial Concepts (Johan Thoen and Rainer Busch).
13 Succinic Acid – A Model Building Block for Chemical Production from Renewable Resources (Todd Werpy, John Frye, and John Holladay).
14 Polylactic Acid from Renewable Resources (Patrick Gruber, David E. Henton, and Jack Starr).
15 Biobased Consumer Products for Cosmetics (Thomas C. Kripp).

Part III Biobased Industry: Economy, Commercialization and Sustainability.

16 Industrial Biotech – Setting Conditions to Capitalize on the Economic Potential (Rolf Bachmann and Jens Riese).

Subject Index.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Excerpt [Part I. Background and Outline Principles and Fundamentals]


Book Review

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Saturday, June 9, 2007

Biofuels for Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy from Biomass Fermentation

Biofuels for Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy from Biomass Fermentation

Editor(s): P Lens, P Westermann, M Haberbauer, A Moreno | London: IWA Publishing, 2005 | 544 pages | Hardback | ISBN 1843390922 |

Price: £ 109.00 / US$ 218.00 / € 163.50
IWA members price: £ 82.00 / US$ 164.00 / € 123.00

The increasing demand for energy and the related environmental concerns are the main drivers for the strong interest in Biomass Fermentation towards usage in Fuel Cells. The integration of Biomass Fermentation (BF) and Fuel Cells (FC) technology creates a new and interdisciplinary research area.

Due to their high efficiency Fuel Cells are therefore considered as a strategic technology for future energy supply systems. The fact that biomass is a renewable source of energy in combination with the most efficient energy conversion system (FC) makes this combination unique and advantageous.

This book has a clear orientation towards making products of our waste. Biofuels for Fuel Cells comes at a time when this field is rapidly developing and there is a need for a synthetising book. The holistic and multidisciplinary description of this topic, including discussion of technological, socio-economic, system analysis and policy and regulatory aspects, make this book the definitive work for this market.

Biofuels for Fuel Cells will cross-link scientists of all fields concerned with Biomass Fermentation, Fuel Upgrading and Fuel Cells at European and World level.

Table of Contents

Source []

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Thursday, June 7, 2007

Farmer's Almanac TV: Iowa's Biodiesel

Iowa Public Television will feature a visit to Victor Lin's Iowa State University chemistry lab during Friday's episode of "Farmers' Almanac TV." Lin, a professor of chemistry, has developed a high-tech catalyst that he hopes will revolutionize how biodiesel is produced. The technology features nanospheres just 250 billionths of a meter in diameter. But fill them with the right chemistry and they can take some of the energy, labor and toxic chemicals out of biodiesel production.

The episode will be broadcast at 6:30 p.m. Friday, June 8, 2007 on Iowa Public Television.

The "Iowa Biodiesel" segment is available on the Farmer's Almanac TV video Web site.


Monday, June 4, 2007

Biorenewable Resources: Engineering New Products from Agriculture

Biorenewable Resources: Engineering New Products from Agriculture
Ames: Iowa State University Press, 2003.
| xii, 286 p. : ill. ; 27 cm. | $89.99 |
ISBN: 9780813822631 | ISBN10: 0813822637

Immense potential for sustainable development lies in the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials from bioresources. This timely book provides comprehensive coverage of the engineering systems that convert agricultural crops and residues into bioenergy and biobased products.

Leading the way as the first textbook for coursework on biobased products, Biorenewable Resources: Engineering New Products from Agriculture covers not only pertinent technologies but offers a primer on necessary foundation subjects the student or other reader may lack: organic chemistry, thermodynamics, plant science, crop production, environmental science, and process economics. Of special value to those working or planning to work in the field are compilations of bioresource properties, such as:

***production yields,
***bulk densities and moisture content,
***summative analysis of plant materials, and
***chemical conversion yields.

By defining this multi-disciplinary field at the interface between agricultural sciences and process engineering Robert C. Brown has produced an introductory textbook that also serves as a handbook for agronomists, engineers, chemists, and environmentalists.

About the Author:
Robert C. Brown is professor of chemical engineering and mechanical engineering at Iowa State University, Ames. He is also director of the Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies, which explores the use of both fossil and biomass fuels for the production of chemicals and energy

Source []

Open WorldCat


Sunday, June 3, 2007

Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass. Part I

Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass. Volume I—Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

Produced by the Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Office of Biomass Program (EERE |Editors: T. Werpy and G. Petersen, Editors
[Golden, CO :; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2004]

Executive Summary
This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol.

Building Blocks
***1,4 succinic, fumaric and malic acids
***2,5 furan dicarboxylic acid
***3 hydroxy propionic acid
***aspartic acid
***glucaric acid
***glutamic acid
***itaconic acid
***levulinic acid

The synthesis for each of the top building blocks and their derivatives was examined as a two-part pathway. The first part is the transformation of sugars to the building blocks. The second part is the conversion of the building blocks to secondary chemicals or families of derivatives. Biological transformations account for the majority of routes from plant feedstocks to building blocks, but chemical transformations predominate in the conversion of building blocks to molecular derivatives and intermediates. The challenges and complexity of these pathways, as they relate to the use of biomass derived sugars and chemicals, were briefly examined in order to highlight R&D needs that could help improve the economics of producing these building blocks and derivatives. Not surprisingly, many of the transformations and barriers revealed in this analysis are common to the existing biological and chemical processing of sugars.

The final selection of 12 building blocks began with a list of more than 300 candidates. The shorter list of 30 potential candidates was selected using an literative review process based on the petrochemical model of building blocks, chemical data, known market data, properties, performance of the potential candidates and the prior industry experience of the team at PNNL and NREL. This list of 30 was ultimately reduced to 12 by examining the potential markets for the building blocks and their derivatives and the technical complexity of the synthesis pathways. A second-tier group of building blocks was also identified as viable candidates. These include gluconic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, propionic acid, the triacids, citric and aconitic; xylonic acid, acetoin, furfural, levoglucosan, lysine, serine and threonine. Recommendations for moving forward include examining top value products from biomass components such as aromatics, polysaccharides, and oils; evaluating technical challenges in more detail related to chemical and biological conversions; and increasing the suites of potential pathways to these candidates.

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ..... 1
1 Background ..... 3
2 Objective ..... 4
3 Overall Approach ..... 5
4 Initial Screening to the Top 30 ..... 6
5 Selected Sugar-derived Chemicals ..... 13
6 Syngas Results – Top Products ..... 17
7 Pathways and Challenges ..... 18
8 Moving Forward ...... 20
9 Top 12 Candidate Summary Bios ..... 21
9.1 Four Carbon 1,4-Diacids (Succinic, Fumaric, and Malic)..... 22
9.2 2,5-Furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA)..... 26
9.3 3-Hydroxy propionic acid (3-HPA) ..... 29
9.4 Aspartic acid ..... 31
9.5 Glucaric acid ..... 36
9.6 Glutamic acid ..... 39
9.7 Itaconic acid ..... 42
9.8 Levulinic acid ..... 45
9.9 3 Hydroxybutyrolactone ..... 49
9.10 Glycerol ..... 52
9.11 Sorbitol (Alcohol Sugar of Glucose) ..... 58
9.12 Xylitol/arabinitol (Sugar alcohols from xylose and arabinose) ..... 61
10 Catalog of Potential Chemicals and Materials from Biomass .....65
Bibliography ..... 66
References Used to Develop Catalog for Potential Biobased Products ..... 66
References for Assigning Chemical and Biochemical Pathways ..... 66

Table 1 Biorefinery Strategic Fit Criteria ..... 6
Table 2 Top Candidates from the First Screen ..... 8
Table 3 Down Selection – Top 30 Results ..... 12
Table 4 The Top Sugar-derived Building Blocks ..... 13
Table 5 Sugar Transformation to 3-HPA ..... 14
Table 6 Reductive Transformation – 3HP to 1,3 PDO via catalytic dehydrogenation ..... 14
Table 7 Dehydrative Transformation – 3-HPA to acrylic acid via catalytic dehydration ..... 14
Table 8 Pathways to Building Blocks from Sugars ...... 19
Table 9 Pathways to Building Block From Sugars [Four Carbon 1,4 Diacids
(Succinic, Fumaric, and Malic] ..... 22
Table 10 Family 1: Reductions [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives Four Carbon 1,4-Diacids (Succinic, Fumaric, and Malic)] ..... 22
Table 11 Family 2: Reductive Aminations [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives - Four Carbon 1,4-Diacids (Succinic, Fumaric, and Malic)] ..... 22
Table 12 Family 3: Direct Polymerization [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives - Four Carbon 1,4-Diacids (Succinic, Fumaric, and Malic] ..... 23
Table 13 Pathways to Building Block From Sugars [ 2,5-Furan dicarboxylic Acid (FDCA)] ..... 26
Table 14 Family 1: Reduction [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives: 2,5 Furan dicarboxylic Acid (FDCA)] ..... 26
Table 15 Family 2: Direct Polymerization [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives: 2,5-Furan dicarboxylic Acid (FDCA)] ..... 27
Table 16 Pathways to Building Block from Sugars (3-HPA) ..... 29
Table 17 Family 1: Reductions [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives (3 HPA) ..... 29
Table 18 Family 2: Dehydration [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives (3 HPA) ..... 29
Table 19 Pathways to Building Block - Aspartic Acid ..... 31
Table 20 Family 1: Reductions [Primary Tansformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives Aspartic Acid ..... 32
Table 21 Family 2: Dehydration - [Primary Tansformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives –Aspartic Acid] ..... 32
Table 22 Family 3: Direct Polymerization [Primary Tansformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives – Aspartic Acid ..... 32
Table 23 Pathway to Building Block From Sugars [Glucaric Acid] ..... 36
Table 24 Family 1 - Dehydration [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives -Glucaric Acid] ..... 36
Table 25 Amination and Direct Polymeriation [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives – Glucaric Acid] ..... 36
Table 26 Pathways to Building Block From Sugars [Glutamic Acid] ..... 39
Table 27 Family 1: Reductions [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives – Glutamic Acid] ..... 39
Table 28 Pathways to Building Block from Sugars [Itaconic Acid] ..... 42
Table 29 Family 1: Reductions [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives –Itaconic Acid] ..... 42
Table 30 Family 2: Direct Polymerization [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives – Itaconic Acid] ..... 42
Table 31 Pathways to Building Block From Sugars [Levulinic Acid] ..... 45
Table 32 Family 1: Reductions [Primary Transformation Pathways(s)to Derivatives -Levulinic Acid] ..... 45
Table 33 Family 2: Oxidations [Primary Transformation Pathways(s)to Derivatives –Levulinic Acid] ..... 45
Table 34 Family 3: Condensation [Primary Transformation Pathways(s)to Derivatives –Levulinic Acid] ..... 46
Table 35 Pathways to Building Block from Sugars [Pathways to Building Block From Sugars – 3-Hydroxybutyrolactone] ..... 49
Table 36 Family 1: Reductions [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives – 3-Hydroxybutyrolactone] ..... 49
Table 37 Family 2: Direct Polymerization [Pimary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives – 3-Hydroxybutyrolactone] ..... 50
Table 38 Pathways to Building Block [Glycerol] ..... 52
Table 39 Family 1: Oxidation [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives [Glycerol] ..... 52
Table 40 Family 2: Bond Breaking (Hydrogenolysis) [Primary Transformation Pathway(s) to Derivatives [Glycerol] ..... 52
Table 41 Family 3: Direct Polymerization [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives [Glycerol] ..... 53
Table 42 Preliminary Economic Screening of the Glycerol Potential ..... 56
Table 43 Preliminary Economic Screening of the Glycerol Potential (Continued) ..... 57
Table 44 Pathways to Building Block [Sorbitol] ..... 58
Table 45 Family 1: Dehydration [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives –Sorbitol] ..... 58
Table 46 Family 2: Bond Cleavage (hydrogenolysis) [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives - Sorbitol] ..... 58
Table 47 Family 3: Direct Polymerization [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives - Sorbitol] ..... 59
Table 48 Pathways to Building Block From Sugars [Xylitol/arabinitol] ..... 61
Table 49 Family 1: Oxidations [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives – Xylitol/arabinitol] ..... 61
Table 50 Family 2: Bond Cleavage (hydrogenolysis) [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives – Xylitol/arabinitol] ..... 62
Table 51 Family 2: Direct Polymerization [Primary Transformation Pathway(s)to Derivatives – Xylitol/arabinitol] ..... 62

Figure 1 Visual Representation of Overall Selection Strategy ..... 5
Figure 2 An Example of a Flow-Chart for Products from Petroleum-based Feedstocks ..... 10
Figure 3 Analogous Model of a Biobased Product Flow-chart for Biomass Feedstocks ..... 11
Figure 4 Star Diagram of 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid ..... 15
Figure 5 Succinic Acid Chemistry to Derivatives ..... 23
Figure 6 Simplified PFD of Glucose Fermentation to Succinic Acid ..... 24
Figure 7 Derivatives of FDCA ..... 27
Figure 8 Derivatives of 3-HPA ..... 30
Figure 9 Aspartic Acid Chemistry to Derivatives ..... 33
Figure 10 Derivatives of Glucaric Acid ..... 37
Figure 11 Glutamic Acid and its Derivatives ...... 40
Figure 12 Itaconic Acid Chemistry to Derivatives ..... 43
Figure 13 Derivatives of Levulinic Aid ..... 47
Figure 14 3-HBL Chemistry to Derivatives ..... 51
Figure 15 Derivatives of Glycerol ..... 54
Figure 16 Sorbitol Chemistry to Derivatives ..... 59
Figure 17 Chemistry to Derivatives of Xylitol and Arabinitol ..... 63

Principal Investigators: T. Werpy and G. Petersen,
Contributing authors: A. Aden and J. Bozell (NREL); J. Holladay and J. White (PNNL); and Amy Manheim (DOE-HQ)

Other Contributions: Research, Models, Databases, Editing: D. Elliot, L. Lasure, S. Jones and M. Gerber (PNNL); K. Ibsen, L. Lumberg and S. Kelley (NREL)

Source []

Thanks to Marc C. Reid, The Green Chemistry Technical Blog, for the HeadsUp on this report.