Monday, May 28, 2007

A Call to Action Summit: Ensuring Iowa's Leadership in the Bioeconomy

A Call to Action Summit: Ensuring Iowa's Leadership in the Bioeconomy
November 28 2006 | Iowa State University |

Bioeconomy summit spotlights Iowa's future
by Diana Pounds
Inside Iowa State | December 8, 2006

In the biofuels race, Iowa leads the pack. Superior corn-growing attributes and entrepreneurial farmers have propelled Iowa to the No. 1 ethanol-producing state in the nation.

Can the state hold that front-runner position? That was the question Nov. 28 when representatives of academia, industry and government joined other state leaders on campus to talk biofuels.

Their task, as laid out by President Gregory Geoffroy, who called the summit, was to begin anticipating changes on the biofuels front and lay the groundwork for continued Iowa leadership in the field.
[snip]

The day-long summit on "Ensuring Iowa's Leadership in the Bioeconomy" drew a crowd. Approximately 450 participants spent the morning learning about bioeconomy issues from several experts and the afternoon brainstorming about ways to maintain Iowa's leadership in the field.

[more]

Audio/Video
***Welcome, Board of Regents President Michael Gartner
***"Growing the Economy in Iowa: Fueling the Future," ISU President Gregory Geoffroy
***"The Future of Biorefining in Iowa," Robert C. Brown, ISU Office of Biorenewables
***"Implications of Bioenergy on Agricultural Production," Craig Lang, Iowa Farm Bureau Federation
***"Economic and Social Impact of a Growing Bioenergy Industry on the State and its Policy Implications," Bruce Babcock, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, ISU
***Innovating for the Future," Ted Crosbie, chief technology officer for the state of Iowa
***Presentations by Summit Work Groups

Source
[http://www.iastate.edu/Inside/2006/1208/bioeconomy.shtml]

The Energy Citations Database

The Energy Citations Database

The Energy Citations Database (1948 – present) was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) to improve access to Departmental and predecessor agency scientific and technical information (STI).

The Energy Citations Database (ECD) contains over two million bibliographic citations for energy and energy related STI from the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies, the Energy Research & Development Administration (ERDA) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The database provides access to DOE publicly available citations from 1948 through the present, with continued growth through regular updates. There are over 140,000 electronic documents, primarily from 1994 forward, available via the database.

Features of ECD include:
***bibliographic citations for scientific and technical information dating from 1948 to the present
***basic search capability
***fielded search capability
***capability to search on full text, bibliographic citation, title, creator/author, subject, identifier numbers, publication date, system entry date, resource/document type, research organization, sponsoring organization, and/or combinations thereof;
capability to sort search results by relevance, publication date, system entry date, resource/document type, title, research organization, sponsoring organization, or the unique OSTI Identifier
***ability to acquire a count of search results with a link to the search results
***ability to receive weekly Alerts in topics of interest
***information about Technical Requirements; and
***information about acquiring a non-electronic document, which can be found on the Document Availability page

ECD includes bibliographic citations of literature in disciplines of interest to DOE such as chemistry, physics, materials, environmental science, geology, engineering, mathematics, climatology, oceanography, computer science and related disciplines. It includes citations to report literature, conference papers, journal articles, books, dissertations, and patents.

Alerts
Alerts provide users with e-mail notification of updates to the ECD in specific areas of interest.
[http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/alertlogon.jsp]

Available at
[http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/about.jsp]

Sunday, May 27, 2007

Biobased Industry Outlook Conference(s)

Biobased Industry Outlook Conference(s)

The annual Biobased Industry Outlook Conference has established a reputation for being "the" Midwestern event where industry and community leaders, academicians, and government agents gather to learn and share information about manufacturing, distributing, and marketing biobased products.

2007
Growing the Bioeconomy: Science and Policy for Next Generation Biorefining
November 5-6, 2007 | Iowa State University | Ames IA
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/]

Keynote Speakers
***Craig Venter, Synthetic Genomics, Inc.
***Ryan Lance, VP, Biofuels, ConocoPhillips
***Suzanne Hunt, Bioenergy Project Manager, Worldwatch Institute
***Vinod Khosla, Founder, Khosla Ventures
***Jeff Broin, CEO POET, formerly known as Broin Companies
***Jeremy Tomkinson, Executive Director, NNFCC, UK (invited)
***United States Senator Tom Harkin, D–Iowa (tentative confirmation)
***United States Senator Chuck Grassley, R–Iowa (tentative confirmation)
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/07speakers.htm]

The 2007 Biobased Industry Outlook will coincide with the national presidential candidates' debates being hosted at Iowa State on the evenings of November 5-6. Conference participants will be able to attend the debates, which will probably be nationally televised. The Republican debates will be held on one night and the Democratic debates will be held on the other.

2006
Growing the Bioeconomy: Science and Policy for Next Generation Biorefining
August 28-29,2006 | Iowa State University | Ames IA
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/agenda.html]

Keynote Speakers
***Jim Breson, EBI General Project Manager, British Petroleum
***Jason Grumet, Executive Director, National Commission on Energy Policy
***Lee Lynd, professor of engineering, Dartmouth College
***Vinod Khosla, founding CEO, Sun Microsystems

Breson discussed the role that oil companies can play in significantly increasing the production and use of biofuels in the U.S.

Lynd described several potential models for integrated biorefineries,
different types of crops that can provide the raw materials needed
for large scale bioenergy production, and ways to integrate the
production of food, feed, fiber, and energy.

Grumet discussed the Commission on Energy Policy's strategic vision for policy development and advocacy.

Khosla, a venture capitalist, described his vision for supporting the continued growth of the bioeconomy.
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/speakers.html]

Speaker Presentations
NOTE: Select presentations have not been made available at the request of the speaker(s).
***Anex, Robert | Feedstocks/Nutrient Recycling/Soil/ Water
***Birrell, Stuart | Biomass/Feedstock/Harvest/Storage Systems
***Boulard, David | Thermochemical Technologies
***Bozell, Joe | Technical Overview of Biorefineries
***Clause, Reg | Biobased Business Development
***Cruse, Richard | Feedstocks/Nutrient Recycling/Soil/Water
***Duncan, Marv | Federal Biobased Products Preferred Procurement
***Egerton, Robert | Capitalization Strategies
***English, Burton | Feedstock Supply
***Erickson, Jon | Thermochemical Technologies
***Euken, Jill | Economic Interactions: Biofuels/Agricultural Markets
***Fuhrman, Ron | Business Solutions for Small "Bio" Companies
***Glassner, David | Advanced Technology Commercialization
***Grumet, Jason | Keynote Address
***Haney, Dave | Transportation Needs for the Bioeconomy
***Hanna, Milford | New Directions in Oleochemicals
***Hart, Chad | Ethanol and Livestock
***Hartzler, Chad | Producing Biodiesel: The Renewable Energy Group
***Heaton, Emily | Feedstocks/Nutrient Recycling/Soil/ Water
***Heine, Bruce | Transportation Needs for the Bioeconomy
***Horner, Bill | Commercializing Biobased Products
***Jenkins, Bryan | Technical Overview of Biorefineries
***Johnson, Delayne | Commercializing Biobased Products
***Jolly, Robert | Economic Interactions: Biofuels/Agricultural Markets
***Keck, Pam Human | Resources Issues and the Bioeconomy
***Keller, Suzanne | Human Resources Issues and the Bioeconomy
***Khosla, Vinod | Keynote Address
***Larock, Richard | New Directions in Oleochemicals
***Lindquist, Mark | Advanced Technology Commercialization
***Lovass, Deron | Advanced Technology Commercialization
***Lynd, Lee | Keynote Address
***Lynd, Lee | New Directions in Carbohydrates
***Miranowski, John | Economic Interactions: Biofuels/Agricultural Markets
***Novak, Carey | Biobased Business Development
***Novak, Carey | Commercializing Biobased Products
***Ott, Mike | Business Solutions for Small "Bio" Companies
***Pollack, Jim | Commercializing Biobased Products
***Raman, Raj | Human Resources Issues and the Bioeconomy
***Reardon, | John Thermochemical Technologies
***Sellers, John | Feedstock Supply
***Sheehan, John | Technical Overview of Biorefineries
***Shore, Craig | Commercializing Biobased Products
***Siembieda, Steve | Biobased Business Development
***Stern, Michael | Ethanol and Livestock
***Trenkle, Allen | Ethanol and Livestock
***Wisner, Robert | Economic Interactions: : Biofuels/Agricultural Markets
***Wong, Jetta | Advanced Technology Commercialization
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/registration.html]

Webcasts
Keynote Addresses:
***Lee Lynd
***Vinod Khosla
Breakout Sessions:
***Ethanol and Livestock: Synergies or Competition (Chad Hart, Mike Stern, Allen Trenkle)
***Technical Overview of Biorefineries (Joe Bozell, Bryan Jenkins, John Sheehan)
***Innovations in Carbohydrate Production and Processing (Lee Lynd)
***Economic Interactions of Biofuels and Agricultural Markets (Jill Euken, Robert Jolly, John Miranowski, Robert Wisner)
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/webcasts.html]

2005
Growing the Bioeconomy: Planting Ideas * Cultivating Partnerships * Harvesting Progress
August 29-30, 2005 | Iowa State University | Ames IA
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/Conf2005/schedule.html]
Presentations
By Speaker Last Name
***Andreja Bakac, Adjunct Professor, Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University
Bio | Presentation
Session: Iowa State University Center for Catalysis Research Presentations

***Paul Bloom, Manger, New Industrial Chemicals, ADM
Bio | Presentation
Session: Bioproducts from Crop Oils

***Roger Conway, Director, Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, USDA
Bio
Session: Developing Market Pull for Biobased Products

***Charles Cox, Asst. Professor, Microbiology, University of Iowa
Bio | Presentation
Session: Iowa Biotechnology Byproducts Consortium Research Presentations

***Randy Dipner, Consultant, PBC, Inc.
Bio
Session: SBIR as a Funding Source for Commercializing New Bioproduction Technologies

***Mark Downing, Research Scientist, U.S. Department of Energy
Bio | Presentation
Session: Residues and Dedicated Energy Crops

***Mike Duffy, Economist, Iowa State University Department of Agriculture Economics
Bio | Presentation
Session: Conservation and the Bioeconomy

***Marvin Duncan, Senior Agricultural Economist in the Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, USDA
Bio | Presentation
Session: Developing Market Pull for Biobased Products

***Sevim Erhan, Research Leader, Food and Industrial Oil Research, NCAUR
Bio | Presentation
Session: Bioproducts from Crop Oils

***Doug Faulkner, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Bio | Session: U.S. Department of Energy Priorities

***William Gong, Research Associate, Topic Leader in PTA R&T, BP America
Bio
Session: Biorefineries: Opportunities for Business and Research Partnerships

***Philip Goodrich, Associate Professor, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Minnesota
Bio | Presentation
Session: Manure as a Feedstock for Biobased Products

***Daryl Haack, Chairman, National Corn Growers Association Ethanol Committee
Bio | Presentation
Session: Biorefineries: Opportunities for Business and Research Partnerships

***Stephen Halsey, Managing Supervisor, Gibbs & Soel
Bio | Presentation
Session: Developing Market Pull for Biobased Products

***James Hettenhaus, Co-founder, cea, Inc.
Bio | Presentation
Session: Residues and Dedicated Energy Crops

***Matt Janes, Vice President of Technology, VeraSun Energy Corporation
Bio
Session: Ethanol Efficiencies and DDGs

***Stanley R. Johnson, Vice Provost for University Extension at Iowa State University
Bio
Session: Opening Remarks - August 30

***Samir K. Khanal, Research Assistant Professor, Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University
Bio | Presentation
Session: Iowa Biotechnology Byproducts Consortium Research Presentations

***John Laflen, Adjunct Professor of Agricultural Engineering at Iowa State University
Bio | Presentation
Session: Conservation and the Bioeconomy

***David Laird, Soil Scientist, National Soil Tilth Lab
Bio | Presentation
Session: Conservation and the Bioeconomy

***Greg Langmo, Development Consultant, FibroMinn
Bio | Presentation - Send email to request presentation
Session: Manure as a Feedstock for Biobased Products

***Tom Latham, Iowa Congressman
Bio
Session: Luncheon Speaker - August 29

***Rich Leopold, Executive Director, Iowa Environmental Council
Bio
Session: Conservation and the Bioeconomy

***Victor Lin, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University
Bio
Session: Iowa State University Center for Catalysis Research Presentations

***Lee Lynd, Professor of Engineering, Dartmouth College
Bio | Presentation
Session: The Role of Biomass in Meeting U.S. Energy Needs

***James McLaren, President, StrathKirn, Inc.
Bio | Presentation
Session: Residues and Dedicated Energy Crops

***Karen Merrick, Biosciences Coordinator, Iowa Department of Economic Development
Bio
Session: SBIR as a Funding Source for Commercializing New Bioproduction Technologies - Q&A Session

***Sally Metz, Technical Lead for Corn Ethanol, Monsanto
Bio
Session: Biorefineries: Opportunities for Business and Research Partnerships

***Carl Muska, Safety, Health and the Environment Manager, DuPont
Bio | Presentation
Session: Biorefineries: Opportunities for Business and Research Partnerships

***Shri Ramaswamy, Professor and Department Head, University of Minnesota
Bio | Presentation
Session: Natural Fibers and Composites

***Tom Robb, Coproducts Manager, Abengoa
Bio | Presentation
Session: Ethanol Efficiencies and DDGs

***Paul Roberts, Author of The End of Oil: On the Edge of a Perilous New World
Bio
Session: The End of Oil - Keynote Address

***John (Jack) Rosazza, Director of Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing, University of Iowa
Bio
Session: Iowa Biotechnology Byproducts Consortium Research Presentations

***Stephen Shaler, Professor of Wood Science and Technology, University of Maine-Orono
Bio | Presentation
Session: Natural Fibers and Composites

***Brent Shanks, Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Iowa State University
Bio | Presentation
Session: Iowa Biotechnology Byproducts Consortium Research Presentations

***Craig Shore, President, Creative Composites
Bio | Presentation
Session: Natural Fibers and Composites

***Jeff Stroburg, CEO, West Central Cooperative
Bio | Presentation 1
Session: Biorefineries: Opportunities for Business and Research Partnerships
Presentation 2
Session: Bioproducts from Crop Oils

***Tim Swanson, Director of Research and Development, ICM
Bio
Session: Ethanol Efficiencies and DDGs

***John M. Sweeten, Resident Director, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
Bio | Presentation
Session: Manure as a Feedstock for Biobased Products

***John Verkade, Professor, Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University
Bio | Presentation
Session: Iowa State University Center for Catalysis Research Presentations

***Thomas Vilsack, Governor of Iowa
Bio
Session: Opening Remarks - August 29

Posters
A special poster session was held in conjunction with the evening reception on August 29, 2005. Investigators affiliated [with the] Iowa Biotechnology Byproducts Consortium (BBC), Iowa State University's Center for Catalysis (CCAT), the Center for Crops Utilization Research (CCUR) at Iowa State, and the Office of Biorenewables Programs (OBP) at Iowa State presented posters that describe new and on-going research projects.
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/Conf2005/ResearchPosters.pdf]

2004
BIOconference 2004: Biobased Industry Outlook
March 7-8, 2004 | Iowa State University | Ames IA
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/Conf2004/BIOschedule.html]

Speakers
Dr. Stanley Johnson, Vice Provost for ISU Extension
Merlin Bartz | USDA (invited)
James Fischer | DOE (invited)
Georg Anderl | BIOWA
Floyd Barwig |Director, Iowa Energy Center
Kevin Kephart |Syngas fermentation
Jeff Stroburg | West Central Cooperative
Blake Hollis | UNI-ABIL
Lou Honary | UNI-ABIL
Diane Neuzil |UNI-ABIL
Mike Blouin |Director, IA Dept. of Economic Dev.
Steve Howell | ISU
Ken Moore | ISU
Robert Brown | ISU
Doug Stokke | ISU
Rob Anex | ISU
Marvin Duncan | USDA
Steve Devlin | CIRAS - ISU Extension
Bruce Coney |Central Iowa Procurement Center
Ramani Narayan |ASTM
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/Conf2004/BIOspeakers.html]

Presentations [NOT AVAILABLE]
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/Conf2004/BIOPresentations.html]

Posters
[http://www.bioeconomyconference.org/Conf2004/BIOposters.html]

Saturday, May 26, 2007

Thermochemical Ethanol Via Lignocellulosic Biomass

Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

S. Phillips, A. Aden, J. Jechura, and D. Dayton
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
T. Eggeman
Neoterics International, Inc.

Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

NREL/TP-510-41168 | April 2007
1. Executive Summary
This work addresses a policy initiative by the Federal Administration to apply United States Department of Energy (DOE) research to broadening the country’s domestic production of economic, flexible, and secure sources of energy fuels. President Bush stated in his 2006 State of the Union Address: “America is addicted to oil.” To reduce the Nation’s future demand for oil, the President has proposed the Advanced Energy Initiative which outlines significant new investments and policies to change the way we fuel our vehicles and change the way we power our homes and businesses. The specific goal for biomass in the Advanced Energy Initiative is to foster the breakthrough technologies needed to make cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive with corn-based ethanol by 2012.

In previous biomass conversion design reports by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a benchmark for achieving production of ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks that would be “cost competitive with corn-ethanol” has been quantified as $1.07 per gallon ethanol minimum plant gate price. This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot-unit level by 2012. This assessment is unique in its attempt to match up:

***Currently established and published technology.
***Technology currently under development or shortly to be under development from DOE Office of Biomass Program funding.
***Biomass resource availability in the 2012 time frame consistent with the Billion Ton Vision study.

Indirect steam gasification was chosen as the technology around which this process was developed based upon previous technoeconomic studies for the production of methanol and hydrogen from biomass. The operations for ethanol production are very similar to those for methanol production (although the specific process configuration will be different). The general process areas include: feed preparation, gasification, gas cleanup and conditioning, and alcohol synthesis & purification.

The cost of ethanol as determined in this assessment was derived using technology that has been developed and demonstrated or is currently being developed as part of the OBP research program. Combined, all process, market, and financial targets in the design represent what must be achieved to obtain the reported $1.01 per gallon, showing that ethanol from a thermochemical conversion process has the possibility of being produced in a manner that is “cost competitive with corn-ethanol” by 2012. This analysis has demonstrated that forest resources can be converted to ethanol in a cost competitive manner. This allows for greater flexibility in converting biomass resources to make stated volume targets by 2030.

Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary ..... i
2. Introduction ..... 1
2.1. Analysis Approach ..... 6
2.2. Process Design Overview ...... 10
2.3. Feedstock and Plant Size ...... 12
3. Process Design ..... 14
3.1. Process Design Basis ..... 14
3.2. Feed Handling and Drying – Area 100 ..... 14
3.3. Gasification – Area 200 ..... 15
3.4. Gas Cleanup and Conditioning – Area 300 ...... 17
3.5. Alcohol Synthesis – Area 400 ...... 20
3.6. Alcohol Separation – Area 500 ..... 25
3.7. Steam System and Power Generation Area - 600 ..... 26
3.8. Cooling Water and Other Utilities – Area 700 ..... 28
3.9. Additional Design Information ..... 29
3.10. Pinch Analysis ..... 29
3.11. Energy Balance ..... 30
3.12. Water Issues ..... 34
4. Process Economics ..... 35
4.1. Capital Costs ..... 35
4.2. Operating Costs ..... 38
4.3. Value of Higher Alcohol Co-Products ..... 41
4.4. Minimum Ethanol Plant Gate Price ..... 42
5. Process Economics, Sensitivity Analyses, and Alternate Scenarios .....43
5.1. Financial Scenarios ...... 45
5.2. Feedstocks ...... 46
5.3. Thermal Conversion ...... 50
5.4. Clean-Up & Conditioning ...... 50
5.5. Fuels Synthesis ...... 50
5.6. Markets ..... 50
6. Conclusions ..... 51
7. Future Work ..... 51
8. References ..... 53

List of Figures
Figure 1. U.S. list prices for ethanol ..... 2
Figure 2. Estimated capital intensities for biomass-to-methanol processes ..... 5
Figure 3. Approach to process analysis ..... 6
Figure 4. Chemical Engineering Magazine’s plant cost indices ...... 9
Figure 5. Block flow diagram ...... 10
Figure 6. Expected availability of biomass ...... 13
Figure 7. Pinch analysis composite curve ...... 30
Figure 8. Cost contribution details from each process area ..... 43
Figure 9. Effect of cost year on MESP ..... 44
Figure 10. Results of sensitivity analyses ..... 45
Figure 11. Sensitivity analysis of biomass ash content ..... 47
Figure 12. Sensitivity analysis of biomass moisture content ..... 48
Figure 13. Sensitivity analysis of raw syngas diverted for heat and power due to biomass moisture content ..... 49

List of Tables
Table 1. Chemical Engineering Magazine’s Plant Cost Indices ..... 8
Table 2. Ultimate Analysis of Hybrid Poplar Feed ..... 13
Table 3. Gasifier Operating Parameters, Gas Compositions, and Efficiencies ..... 16
Table 4. Current and Target Design Performance of Tar Reformer ..... 17
Table 5. Target Design Tar Reformer Conditions and Outlet Gas Composition ..... 18
Table 6. Process Conditions for Mixed Alcohols Synthesis ..... 21
Table 7. System of Reactions for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis ..... 23
Table 8. Mixed Alcohol Reaction Performance Results ..... 23
Table 9. Mixed Alcohol Product Distributions ..... 24
Table 10. Plant Power Requirements ..... 27
Table 11. Utility and Miscellaneous Design Information. ..... 29
Table 12. Overall Energy Analysis (LHV basis) ...... 33
Table 13. Process Water Demands for Thermochemical Ethanol ..... 34
Table 14. General Cost Factors in Determining Total Installed Equipment Costs ..... 35
Table 15. Cost Factors for Indirect Costs ..... 36
Table 16. Feed Handling & Drying and Gasifier & Gas Clean Up Costs from the Literature Scaled to 2,000 tonne/day plant ..... 36
Table 17. System Design Information for Gasification References ..... 37
Table 18. Variable Operating Costs ..... 38
Table 19. Labor Costs ..... 39
Table 20. Other Fixed Costs ..... 40
Table 21. Salary Comparison ..... 41
Table 22. Economic Parameters ..... 42

Appendices
Appendix A: List of Acronyms
Appendix B: OBP Thermochemical Platform Research Targets
Appendix C: NREL Biorefinery Design Database Description and Summary
Appendix D: Individual Equipment Cost Summary
Appendix F: Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return Summary
Appendix G: Process Parameters & Operation Summary
Appendix H: Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs)
Appendix I: Syngas and Char Correlations
Appendix J: Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst References
Appendix K: Alcohol Synthesis Kinetics

Full Text Available
[http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/41168.pdf]

Thursday, May 24, 2007

Iowa Power Fund

Des Moines RegisterWednesday, May 23, 2007

Governor signs bills fostering renewable energy

The state will spend $100 million over four years to aid development.

By JASON CLAYWORTH
REGISTER STAFF WRITER

Ames, Ia. - It's official: Iowa will pump $100 million into boosting its renewable fuel research and production. Gov. Chet Culver signed legislation Wednesday that will allocate the money to promote such things as wind power and ethanol-like improvements over the next four years. Culver called the bill historic legislation, telling a crowd of about 50 people at Iowa State University "Our 21st century Iowa expedition starts now." Said Culver, "This will begin the process of making our entire state a laboratory so that we remain a cutting edge of all forms of renewable energy."

The legislation creates a new Office of Energy Independence. The office will pursue new research investments with government and private businesses, as well as help create an Iowa energy independence plan. The goal is to wean Iowa from its dependence on foreign oil by 2025, Culver said.

Iowa State University President Gregory Geoffroy praised the legislation Culver signed. "We are going to do for biomass what George Washington Carver did for the peanut, and it won't be for peanuts," Geoffroy said. He was referring to the internationally famous scientist, who was a student and later a faculty member at what is now Iowa State. Carver is best known for developing multiple uses for the peanut, including peanut butter.

The $100 million in the Iowa Power Fund will be spent over the next four years. Culver said he plans to name the director of the Office of Energy Independence and appoint seven of the 11 Power Fund board members around July 1. The other four members of the board will be state officials, such as the director of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Culver predicted the fund would leverage "hundreds of millions, if not billions of dollars" of additional investments in the state from private and federal sources.

[snip]

Sidebar

FUTURE APPLICANTS
The fund will be available to people working in research, development or implementation of new ways to reduce dependency on foreign oil through renewable energy, advancements in biofuels, or energy efficiency. The office that will accept and review applications for money from the Power Fund is expected to be in place around July 1.

[http://desmoinesregister.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070524/NEWS10/705240389/1011]

Wednesday, May 23, 2007

Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization


Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization
List Price: £155.00
ISBN: 9781560325536
ISBN-10: 1560325534
Publisher: CRC Press
Publication Date: 01/07/1996
Pages: 550
Series: Applied Energy Technology Series

Through a sustained research program and an emerging economic competitiveness, the technology for bioethanol production is poised for immediate widespread commercial applications. Written by engineers and scientists providing a technical focus, this handbook serves as a unique, authoritative, and concise source of information on the benefits of bioethanol to the environment and economy, conversion technologies, future markets, and emerging technologies. It provides the up-to-date information needed by managers, engineers, and scientists to evaluate the technology, market, and economics of this fuel, while also examining the development of production required to support its commercial use.

Google Book Search [http://tinyurl.com/24nqud]

Open WorldCat [http://tinyurl.com/2ysm49]

The Biodiesel Handbook


The Biodiesel Handbook

Gerhard Knothe, Jon Van Gerpen, and J├╝rgen Krahl
Hardbound. 304 pages. 2005. | ISBN: 1-893997-79-0
List Price: $98.00 | Member Price: $85.00

Biodiesel is the form in which vegetable oils and animal fats are used as renewable diesel fuel. Whether it is created as neat diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-based diesel fuels, biodiesel represents a positive alternative to fossil fuels. Many researchers around the world have dealt with the legislative, chemical, and engineering issues that result from the study of biodiesel. The Biodiesel Handbook summarizes these issues and how they have been dealt with, but also presents new data and technical information. Chapters include summaries on legislative and regulatory efforts around the world, the history of vegetable oil-based diesel fuels, the basic concept of the diesel engine, and glycerol, a valuable byproduct of biodiesel production. As the most up-to-date resource on biodiesel available, The Biodiesel Handbook is a necessary book for people interested in renewable fuels.

Contents
Introduction
The History of Vegetable Oil-Based Diesel Fuels
The Basics of Diesel Engines and Diesel Fuels
Biodiesel Production
Basics of the Transesterification Reaction
Alternate Feedstocks and Technologies for Biodiesel Production
Analytical Methods for Biodiesel
Fuel Properties
Cetane Numbers-Heat of Combustion-Why Vegetable Oils and Their Derivatives Are Suitable as a Diesel Fuel
Viscosity of Biodiesel
Cold Weather Properties and Performance of Biodiesel
Oxidative Stability of Biodiesel
Literature Overview
Stability of Biodiesel
Biodiesel Lubricity
Biodiesel Fuels: Biodegradability, Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demand, and Toxicity
Soybean Oil Composition for Biodiesel
Exhuast Emissions
Effect of Biodiesel Fuel on Pollutant Emissions from Diesel Engines
Influence of Biodiesel and Different Petrodiesel Fuels on Exhaust Emissions and Health Effects
Current Status of the Biodiesel Industry
Current Status of Biodiesel in the United States
Current Status of Biodiesel in the European Union
Biodiesel Quality Management: The AGQM Story
Status of Biodiesel in Asia, the Americas, Australia, and South Africa
Environmental Implications of Biodiesel (Life-Cycle Assessment)
Potential Production of Biodiesel
Other Uses of Biodiesel
Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils
Glycerol

Appendix A: Technical Tables
Appendix B: Biodiesel Standards
Appendix C: Internet Resources

Source [http://www.aocs.org/catalog/product.asp?ID=w203&dept=30]

Open WorldCat [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/wcpa/top3mset/57069578]

Biotechnology for Biofuels

BioMed Central announces new interdisciplinary Biofuels Journal

Biotechnology for Biofuels will publish research on ways to improve plant and biological conversion systems for biomass fuel production BioMed Central, the world’s largest publisher of open access, peer-reviewed journals, is pleased to announce the impending launch of Biotechnology for Biofuels. The new journal is the first of its kind to focus exclusively on understanding and advancing the application of biotechnology to improve plant and biological conversion systems for production of fuels from biomass. A peer-reviewed, open access journal, Biotechnology for Biofuels will begin accepting article submissions this summer.

The journal is being edited by some of the leaders in biofuels research including Charles Wyman, Ford Motor Company Chair in Environmental Engineering at the University of California at Riverside; Chris Somerville, Professor of Biological Sciences at Stanford University; and Michael Himmel, Team Leader of the Biomolecular Sciences research staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

[snip]

Biotechnology for Biofuels is being launched to provide a forum for publication of research focused on advances in the development of clean, efficient biofuels. Biotechnology for Biofuels will publish multi-disciplinary, high-calibre, peer-reviewed research, reviews and commentaries on all biotechnological aspects of biofuels research and any related economic, environmental and policy issues. The journal will publish research on a broad range of topics including production of cellulosic biomass, investigations of biomass composition and structure, plant deconstruction, pretreatments, enzymes, fermentations, integrated systems, process design and economics, life cycle studies and other related areas.

Like all of BioMed Central’s journals, Biotechnology for Biofuels
will make research immediately available without charge to any reader with Internet access ... .

[snip]

Source [http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-05/bc-bca052107.php]

Journal Site [http://www.biotechnologyforbiofuels.com/]

Wednesday, May 16, 2007

Brothers of Invention Turn Cobs Into Potential Gold

Des Moines Register | Published May 13, 2007

Brothers of invention turn cobs into potential gold

Twins’ innovation collectscorn waste for biofuel use

By JERRY PERKINS
REGISTER FARM EDITOR

Nebraska City, Neb. — For the past 10 years, harvesting corn and selling the cobs has been a humble little business for Ty and Jay Stukenholtz, 34-year-old twin brothers. By trial and error, computer designing, tinkering and banging away, the Stukenholtz brothers, who farm the 350-acre family farm near Nebraska City, came up with a way to harvest corn cobs and kernels at the same time and keep the materials separate. Until now, the brothers’ invention has had limited appeal because of the small market for corn cobs, save as cattle feed or in some limited industrial uses.

But that might be about to change as ethanol makers look into producing ethanol from crop residue and other biomass, including the cobs, leaves and stalks from corn plants.
[snip]
“Our goal was to build a cleaner that can attach to the back of a combine with a tank on top for the cobs,” Ty said.
“It’s universal, so it fits on any combine,” said Jay, finishing Ty’s thought.
Ty and Jay are identical twins except for the fact that Ty is right-handed and Jay is left-handed. Their thinking is as complementary as their dexterity, they say, so they form two halves of an inventing whole.
[snip]
In January, Pihlblad and the Stukenholtz twins formed a limited liability company called Ceres Agriculture Consultants, based in Waukee. The company intends to produce or license the twins’ biomass collection system to a farm equipment manufacturer and provide other renewable fuel services.
[snip]
The brothers have made about a dozen different versions of their cob collector. Their 10th version is attached to a 2388 Case IH combine.

As the combine moves through the field, it pulls whole corn plants into the corn head mounted on the front of the combine. Corn kernels are separated from the cobs and other parts of the corn plant and the kernels are routed into the combine’s conventional grain storage tank. The Stukenholtz brothers’ innovation fits on the back of a combine, where the leaves, cobs and other shredded corn plant residue is normally flung out and onto the ground. Instead, the brothers have come up with a device that consists of a series of sieves and fans that separate the different parts of the corn residue as it moves to the back of the combine. The cobs, once separated from the other parts of the corn plant, are sent to a tank that sits atop the combine. The tank is designed to slide to one side so it can discharge the cobs into a wagon.

Other plant residues like soybean pods also can be gleaned by setting the sieves and fans in a different configuration.

It’s been 10 years since the Stukenholtz brothers started tinkering around with a corn cob collector. They’ve made about a dozen versions, including one that is being used by Dan Allen of Allendan Seed Co. in Winterset.
[snip]
But it’s in the emerging field of cellulosic ethanol that the Stukenholtz brothers and Pihl-blad think their machine will really take off.
[snip]
Poet, the ethanol producer formerly known as Broin Cos., plans to use corn cobs to make ethanol at its Emmetsburg plant. Poet has said the plant will need 450 to 500 tons of cobs a day to make cellulosic ethanol.
[snip]
Although Birrell said he hasn’t seen the Stukenholtzes’ attachment at work, cellulosic ethanol production will need innovations like theirs to solve roadblocks to produce ethanol from biomass.

Source [http://tinyurl.com/2w2wh7]

Sunday, May 13, 2007

New Technologies in Ethanol Production

New Technologies in Ethanol Production
C. Matthew Rendleman and Hosein Shapouri
February 2007
Office of the Chief Economist, Office of Energy Policy and New Uses
(Agricultural Economic Report Number 842)

Abstract
Fuel ethanol production has increased steadily in the United States since the 1980s, when it was given impetus by the need to reduce energy dependence on foreign supplies. The momentum has continued as production costs have fallen, and as the U.S. Clean Air Act has specified a percentage of renewable fuels to be mixed with gasoline. The fraction of annual U.S. corn production used to make ethanol rose from around 1 percent in 1980 to around 20 percent in 2006, and ethanol output rose from 175 million gallons to about 5.0 billion gallons over the same period. New technologies that may further increase cost savings include coproduct development, such as recovery of high-value food supplements, and cellulosic conversion. High oil prices may spur the risk-taking needed to develop cellulose-to-ethanol production. Developments such as dry fractionation technology, now commercially viable, may alter the structure of the industry by giving the cheaper dry-grind method an edge over wet milling. Dry milling requires smaller plants, and local farmer cooperatives could flourish as a result. Though improvements in processing and technology are important, however, the fluctuating price of inputs such as corn, the cost of energy alternatives, and environmental developments play larger roles in the fortunes of the
industry.

Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . 1
Changes Since the 1993 ERS Analysis of Ethanol Production . . . . . 3
Ethanol’s Energy Efficiency . . . . . 5
Ethanol Production Processes . . . . . 6
Input Improvements: Higher-Ethanol-Yielding Corn . . . . . 8
Process Improvements . . . . . 10
Advances in Separation Technologies . . . . . 10
New Ways of Fermentation . . . . . 12
New Enzymes . . . . . 13
Distillation Technology . . . . . 14
Control Systems . . . . . 14
Environmental Technologies . . . . . 15
Technologies Involving Coproducts . . . . . 16
The Growing Supply of Feed Coproducts . . . . . 16
Sequential Extraction . . . . . 17
Corn Germ Recovery for the Dry-Mill Process . . . . .17
Centrifugal Corn Oil Separation from the Distiller’s Grain Stream . . . . . 17
CO2 Recovery . . . . . 17
Stillage Clarification and Other Uses of Membranes . . . . . 18
Biorefinery . . . . . 18
Extraction of Compounds from DDGS . . . . . 19
Corn Fiber Oil Recovery . . . . . 19
Regional Impacts of Ethanol Plants . . . . . 20
National Benefits from Ethanol . . . . . 21
Biomass: Ethanol’s Future? . . . . . 22
Cellulose to Ethanol: The Process . . . . . 22
Supplying Biomass . . . . . 23
Biomass Byproducts: Problems with Acid and High Temperatures . . . . . 23
Other Biomass-to-Ethanol Improvements . . . . . 25
Conclusions: Ethanol’s Potential . . . . . 26
References . . . . . 27

Full Text Available
[http://www.usda.gov/oce/energy/aer842_ethanol.pdf]

About the Authors
C. Matthew Rendleman is with the Dept. of Agribusiness Economics, Southern Illinois University, and Hosein Shapouri is with the Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, USDA.

Acknowledgments
The authors wish to thank a number of people who made valuable suggestions and corrections to the paper. They include Don Erbach and Andrew McAloon of the Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Jack Huggins of the Nature Conservancy, and Vijay Singh of the Dept. of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Thursday, May 10, 2007

ISU Town Hall Meeting on Biorenewable Resources

Iowa State University President Gregory L. Geoffroy addresses attendees at a campus-wide Town Hall Meeting on Biorenewable Resources, held October 23 2006 at the university. The presentation provides background information on bionewables and the expertise of Iowa State University and current future opportunities for the university.

Includes a Question and Answer session with Geoffroy, ISU faculty experts, and attendees.

Video of the Town Hall Meeting on Biorenewable Resources is available in the following formats:

Breeze video
http://breeze.extension.iastate.edu/p85891731/

RealPlayer
mms://wms.extension.iastate.edu/video/bioeconomy_10-23-2006.wmv

Duration 1:18:36

Source [http://www.iastate.edu/~nscentral/news/2006/oct/bioforum.shtml]

Monday, May 7, 2007

Launch of The Bioenergy Blog

The Bioenergy Blog is a devoted to the identification and promotion of key primary and secondary literature relating to biorenewable fuels, most notably bioethanol and biodiesel.

It will focus on the technical aspects and technologies associated with the production of these fuels, as well as other bio-based products and commodities.

It will seek to identify significant monographs as well as conference proceedings, dissertations and theses, reports and other grey literature, as well as popular works and relevant digital sources, notably DVDs and significant Websites. Select major review articles will also be profiled.

The Bioenergy Blog was formally established on May 7 2007.

With proper support, it is hoped that the major publications and presentations cited in The Bioenergy Blog will be compiled into a Web-based annotated bibliography.